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Ford Henry Hauptnavigation

Henry Ford gründete den Automobilhersteller Ford Motor Company. Er perfektionierte konsequent die Fließbandfertigung im Automobilbau, die allerdings schon Ransom Eli Olds in vereinfachter Form in seiner Automobilfirma Oldsmobile. Henry Ford (* Juli Greenfield Township (Michigan), USA; † 7. April in Dearborn, Michigan) gründete den Automobilhersteller Ford Motor. Henry Ford II (* 4. September in Detroit; † September ebenda), Sohn von Edsel Ford und Enkel von Henry Ford, war der Präsident der Ford Motor. Mit seiner visionären Idee, ein für jedermann erschwingliches Fahrzeug auf den Markt zu bringen, hat Henry Ford das Leben unzähliger Menschen verändert. Henry Ford revolutioniert mit der Einführung der Fließbandproduktion die Autoindustrie. Fahrzeuge werden so zum Massenprodukt und für jedermann.

Ford Henry

My Life and Work | Ford, Henry | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Henry Fords Autobiographie und ihre deutsche Rezeption in den er-Jahren. 1. Zu seinen Lebzeiten genoss Henry Ford (–) eine weit über die. Er verhalf der US-Autoindustrie zu ihrem großen Durchbruch und ging überaus fair mit seinen Arbeitern um; dennoch ist Henry Ford bis heute. Zwangsarbeiter bei Ford: Im Zuge der Debatte um Entschädigungszahlungen für ehemalige Zwangsarbeiter im Nationalsozialismus schalteten jüdische und polnische Organisationen Anzeigen in amerikanischen Zeitungen, in denen sie Ford Henry Unternehmen anprangerten. Steht und wehrt euch; mögen Schwächlinge Almosen empfangen. Diese interne Wett Hannover erinnerte stark an politische Kampfverbände, wie sie in Deutschland zur Zeit der Weimarer Republik weit verbreitet waren. Jeder der Arbeiter in seinen Fabriken hatte nur eine Aufgabe, die er wie ein Roboter immer wieder und wieder FuГџballwetten — acht Stunden pro Tag, fünf Tage in der Woche. Als seine Autobiographie im November auf Deutsch erschien, parallel zur Stabilisierung der deutschen Währung, waren der Ford-Verehrung keine Grenzen gesetzt. So deutlich Henry Ford dem Antisemitismus öffentlich abgeschworen hatte, so wenig irritierte ihn aber offensichtlich der Judenhass im Deutschen Reich. Ideologie, Propaganda und Volksmeinung —, StuttgartS.

Ford Henry Der Diktator von Detroit

Jahrhunderts so gut mit seinen Arbeitern Brasilien Belgien Livestream wie Henry Ford. Er rechnete vor, dass Ford seinen Arbeitern weniger Lohn zahle als andere Unternehmer, wenn man die Lohnhöhe am durch die Produktivität erzeugten Mehrwert messe. In seinen Fabriken beschäftigte er nicht nur viele Ford Henry, die anderswo nicht eingestellt Eternal Desire, wie Schwarze oder Einwanderer aus Osteuropa. Auf Facebook teilen. Henry Ford schuf so die erste industrielle Massenproduktion in seinen Fabriken. Mitleid mit den Arbeitern, die an den Maschinen extrem monotone Tätigkeiten ausführen mussten, war also deplatziert. Ziel des Unternehmens war es, die Reifenproduktion vom teuren britischen Kautschuk aus Malaysia unabhängig zu machen. Auch für die deutschen Kunden macht Vox New neue Produktionsverfahren Autos erschwinglich: Bei Opel sinkt der Preis dank geringerer Herstellungskosten von 4. Henry Ford als — vorsichtig formuliert — schwierige Persönlichkeit zu beschreiben, legen allerdings nicht nur seine diktatorischen Führungsmethoden nahe. Ford Henry Ford war der erste Amerikaner, dem diese Auszeichnung zuteilwurde. Wer viel schafft, soll viel nach Hause tragen. Artikel bewerten: Durchschnittliche Bewertung: 4. Dann wird die Autobiographie als politisches Programm interpretiert, ihre Entstehung im Kontext von Fords politischen Ambitionen und folglich seines Antisemitismus verortet Beste Spielothek in ZГјsch finden. Durch erhebliche Einsparungen in der Produktion waren Ford-Autos vergleichsweise billig. Famila Punkte Twitter teilen. Neue Folge von Vivos voco. Er verhalf der US-Autoindustrie zu ihrem großen Durchbruch und ging überaus fair mit seinen Arbeitern um; dennoch ist Henry Ford bis heute. Unternehmer, Wohltäter - und Hitlers Vorbild: Der amerikanische Autofabrikant Henry Ford revolutionierte nicht nur die Fließbandproduktion. Henry Fords Autobiographie und ihre deutsche Rezeption in den er-Jahren. 1. Zu seinen Lebzeiten genoss Henry Ford (–) eine weit über die. Henry Ford. US-amerikanischer Gründer des Automobilherstellers Ford Motor Company. Sprache · Beobachten · Bearbeiten. Henry Ford; My Life and Work | Ford, Henry | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Ford Henry

Malcomson , a Detroit-area coal dealer. Ford went to work designing an inexpensive automobile, and the duo leased a factory and contracted with a machine shop owned by John and Horace E.

In response, Malcomson brought in another group of investors and convinced the Dodge Brothers to accept a portion of the new company. Anderson and Horace Rackham.

Ford then demonstrated a newly designed car on the ice of Lake St. Clair , driving 1 mile 1. Convinced by this success, the race driver Barney Oldfield , who named this new Ford model " " in honor of the fastest locomotive of the day, took the car around the country, making the Ford brand known throughout the United States.

Ford also was one of the early backers of the Indianapolis The Model T debuted on October 1, It had the steering wheel on the left, which every other company soon copied.

The entire engine and transmission were enclosed; the four cylinders were cast in a solid block; the suspension used two semi-elliptic springs.

The car was very simple to drive, and easy and cheap to repair. Ford created a huge publicity machine in Detroit to ensure every newspaper carried stories and ads about the new product.

Ford's network of local dealers made the car ubiquitous in almost every city in North America. As independent dealers, the franchises grew rich and publicized not just the Ford but also the concept of automobiling; local motor clubs sprang up to help new drivers and encourage them to explore the countryside.

Ford was always eager to sell to farmers, who looked on the vehicle as a commercial device to help their business. In , Ford introduced moving assembly belts into his plants, which enabled an enormous increase in production.

Although Ford is often credited with the idea, contemporary sources indicate that the concept and development came from employees Clarence Avery , Peter E.

Martin , Charles E. Sorensen , and C. Harold Wills. Sales passed , in By , half of all cars in the United States were Model Ts. All new cars were black; as Ford wrote in his autobiography, "Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black.

The design was fervently promoted and defended by Ford, and production continued as late as ; the final total production was 15,, This record stood for the next 45 years.

This record was achieved in 19 years from the introduction of the first Model T Henry retained final decision authority and sometimes reversed the decisions of his son.

Ford started another company, Henry Ford and Son, and made a show of taking himself and his best employees to the new company; the goal was to scare the remaining holdout stockholders of the Ford Motor Company to sell their stakes to him before they lost most of their value.

He was determined to have full control over strategic decisions. The ruse worked, and Ford and Edsel purchased all remaining stock from the other investors, thus giving the family sole ownership of the company.

In , Ford also purchased Lincoln Motor Co. The company went into receivership, and the Lelands agreed to a Ford buyout. However, they were soon expelled from it.

Despite this acquisition of a premium car maker, Henry displayed relatively little enthusiasm for luxury automobiles in contrast to Edsel, who actively sought to expand Ford into the upscale market.

The original Lincoln Model L the Lelands had introduced in was also kept in production untouched for a decade untouched until it became too outdated.

It was replaced by the modernized Model K in By the mids, General Motors was rapidly rising as the leading American automobile manufacturer.

GM president Alfred Sloan established the company's "price ladder" whereby GM would offer an automobile for "every purse and purpose" in contrast to Ford's lack of interest in anything outside the low-end market.

Although Henry Ford was against replacing the Model T, now 16 years old, Chevrolet was mounting a bold new challenge as the make had been established under Sloan's price ladder as GM's entry-level division.

Ford also resisted the increasingly popular idea of payment plans for cars. With Model T sales starting to slide, Ford was forced to relent and approve work on a successor model, shutting down production for 18 months.

During this time, Ford constructed a massive new assembly plant at River Rouge for the new Model A, which launched in By , flagging sales of the Model T finally convinced Ford to make a new model.

He pursued the project with a great deal of interest in the design of the engine, chassis, and other mechanical necessities, while leaving the body design to his son.

Although Ford fancied himself an engineering genius, he had little formal training in mechanical engineering and could not even read a blueprint.

A talented team of engineers performed most of the actual work of designing the Model A and later the flathead V8 with Ford supervising them closely and giving them overall direction.

Edsel also managed to prevail over his father's initial objections in the inclusion of a sliding-shift transmission. Subsequently, the Ford company adopted an annual model change system similar to that recently pioneered by its competitor General Motors and still in use by automakers today.

Not until the s did Ford overcome his objection to finance companies, and the Ford-owned Universal Credit Corporation became a major car-financing operation.

Henry Ford still resisted many technological innovations such as hydraulic brakes and all-metal roofs, which Ford vehicles did not adopt until For however, Ford dropped a bombshell with the flathead Ford V8, the first low-price eight-cylinder engine.

The flathead V8, variants of which were used in Ford vehicles for 20 years, was the result of a secret project launched in and Henry had initially considered a radical X-8 engine before agreeing to a conventional design.

It gave Ford a reputation as a performance make well-suited for hot-rodding. Ford did not believe in accountants; he amassed one of the world's largest fortunes without ever having his company audited under his administration.

Without an accounting department, Ford had no way of knowing exactly how much money was being taken in and spent each month, and the company's bills and invoices were reportedly guessed at by weighing them on a scale.

Also at Edsel's insistence, Ford launched Mercury in as a mid-range make to challenge Dodge and Buick, although Henry also displayed relatively little enthusiasm for it.

Ford was a pioneer of " welfare capitalism ", designed to improve the lot of his workers and especially to reduce the heavy turnover that had many departments hiring men per year to fill slots.

Efficiency meant hiring and keeping the best workers. Detroit was already a high-wage city, but competitors were forced to raise wages or lose their best workers.

He viewed the increased wages as profit-sharing linked with rewarding those who were most productive and of good character.

Real profit-sharing was offered to employees who had worked at the company for six months or more, and, importantly, conducted their lives in a manner of which Ford's "Social Department" approved.

They frowned on heavy drinking, gambling, and what today are called deadbeat dads. The Social Department used 50 investigators and support staff to maintain employee standards; a large percentage of workers were able to qualify for this "profit-sharing.

Ford's incursion into his employees' private lives was highly controversial, and he soon backed off from the most intrusive aspects.

By the time he wrote his memoir, he had spoken of the Social Department and the private conditions for profit-sharing in the past tense.

He admitted that:. Welfare work that consists in prying into employees' private concerns is out of date. Men need counsel and men need help, often special help; and all this ought to be rendered for decency's sake.

But the broad workable plan of investment and participation will do more to solidify industry and strengthen organization than will any social work on the outside.

Without changing the principle we have changed the method of payment. In addition to raising his workers' wages, Ford also introduced a new, reduced workweek in The decision was made in , when Ford and Crowther described it as six 8-hour days, giving a hour week, [30] but in it was announced as five 8-hour days, giving a hour week.

On May 1, , the Ford Motor Company's factory workers switched to a five-day hour workweek, with the company's office workers making the transition the following August.

Ford had decided to boost productivity, as workers were expected to put more effort into their work in exchange for more leisure time, and because he believed decent leisure time was good for business since workers would have more time to purchase and consume more goods.

However, charitable concerns also played a role. Ford explained, "It is high time to rid ourselves of the notion that leisure for workmen is either 'lost time' or a class privilege.

Ford was adamantly against labor unions. He explained his views on unions in Chapter 18 of My Life and Work. Most wanted to restrict productivity as a means to foster employment, but Ford saw this as self-defeating because, in his view, productivity was necessary for economic prosperity to exist.

He believed that productivity gains that obviated certain jobs would nevertheless stimulate the broader economy and grow new jobs elsewhere, whether within the same corporation or in others.

Ford also believed that union leaders had a perverse incentive to foment perpetual socio-economic crises to maintain their power.

Meanwhile, he believed that smart managers had an incentive to do right by their workers, because doing so would maximize their profits. However, Ford did acknowledge that many managers were basically too bad at managing to understand this fact.

But Ford believed that eventually, if good managers such as he could fend off the attacks of misguided people from both left and right i.

Bennett employed various intimidation tactics to quash union organizing. The Dearborn police department and Ford security guards opened fire on workers leading to over sixty injuries and five deaths.

In the late s and early s, Edsel—who was president of the company—thought Ford had to come to a collective bargaining agreement with the unions because the violence, work disruptions, and bitter stalemates could not go on forever.

But Ford, who still had the final veto in the company on a de facto basis even if not an official one, refused to cooperate. For several years, he kept Bennett in charge of talking to the unions trying to organize the Ford Motor Company.

Sorensen's memoir [37] makes clear that Ford's purpose in putting Bennett in charge was to make sure no agreements were ever reached. Sorensen recounted [38] that a distraught Henry Ford was very close to following through with a threat to break up the company rather than cooperate.

Still, his wife Clara told him she would leave him if he destroyed the family business. In her view, it would not be worth the chaos it would create.

Ford complied with his wife's ultimatum and even agreed with her in retrospect. Overnight, the Ford Motor Company went from the most stubborn holdout among automakers to the one with the most favorable UAW contract terms.

The contract was signed in June Now you're in here and we've given you a union shop and more than you got out of them. That puts you on our side, doesn't it?

We can fight General Motors and Wall Street together, eh? Like other automobile companies, Ford entered the aviation business during World War I , building Liberty engines.

After the war, it returned to auto manufacturing until , when Ford acquired the Stout Metal Airplane Company. Ford's most successful aircraft was the Ford 4AT Trimotor , often called the "Tin Goose" because of its corrugated metal construction.

It used a new alloy called Alclad that combined the corrosion resistance of aluminum with the strength of duralumin.

The plane was similar to Fokker 's V. VII-3m, and some say that Ford's engineers surreptitiously measured the Fokker plane and then copied it.

The Trimotor first flew on June 11, , and was the first successful U. Several variants were also used by the U. The Smithsonian Institution has honored Ford for changing the aviation industry.

Ford opposed war, which he viewed as a terrible waste, [40] [41] and supported causes that opposed military intervention.

He and about other prominent peace leaders traveled there. Ford's Episcopalian pastor, Reverend Samuel S. Marquis, accompanied him on the mission.

Marquis headed Ford's Sociology Department from to Ford talked to President Wilson about the mission but had no government support.

His group went to neutral Sweden and the Netherlands to meet with peace activists. A target of much ridicule, Ford left the ship as soon as it reached Sweden.

Ford plants in the United Kingdom produced Fordson tractors to increase the British food supply, as well as trucks and aircraft engines. When the U.

In , with the war on and the League of Nations a growing issue in global politics, President Woodrow Wilson , a Democrat, encouraged Ford to run for a Michigan seat in the U.

Wilson believed that Ford could tip the scales in Congress in favor of Wilson's proposed League. Ford wrote back: "If they want to elect me let them do so, but I won't make a penny's investment.

Ford remained a staunch Wilsonian and supporter of the League. When Wilson made a major speaking tour in the summer of to promote the League, Ford helped fund the attendant publicity.

Ford had opposed the United States entry into World War II [35] [49] and continued to believe that international business could generate the prosperity that would head off wars.

Ford "insisted that war was the product of greedy financiers who sought profit in human destruction"; in , he went so far as to claim that the torpedoing of U.

Like many other businessmen of the Great Depression era, he never liked or entirely trusted the Franklin Roosevelt Administration, and thought Roosevelt was inching the U.

Ford continued to do business with Nazi Germany , including the manufacture of war materiel. Beginning in , with the requisitioning of between and French POWs to work as slave laborers, Ford-Werke contravened Article 31 of the Geneva Convention.

The number of slave laborers grew as the war expanded even though Nazi authorities did not require German companies to use slave laborers.

When Rolls-Royce sought a U. He "lined up behind the war effort" when the U. Before the U. Ford broke ground on Willow Run in the spring of , B component production began in May , and the first complete B came off the line in October At its peak in , the Willow Run plant produced Bs per month, and by Ford was completing each B in eighteen hours, with one rolling off the assembly line every 58 minutes.

When Edsel Ford died of cancer in , aged only 49, Henry Ford nominally resumed control of the company, but a series of strokes in the late s had left him increasingly debilitated, and his mental ability was fading.

Ford was increasingly sidelined, and others made decisions in his name. Ford grew jealous of the publicity Sorensen received and forced Sorensen out in They threatened to sell off their stock, which amounted to three quarters of the company's total shares, if he refused.

Ford was reportedly infuriated, but had no choice but to give in. In the early s, Ford sponsored a weekly newspaper that published strongly antisemitic views.

At the same time, Ford had a reputation as one of the few major corporations actively hiring Black workers. In , Ford's closest aide and private secretary, Ernest G.

Liebold , purchased an obscure weekly newspaper for Ford, The Dearborn Independent. The Independent ran for eight years, from until , with Liebold as editor.

Every Ford franchise nationwide had to carry the paper and distribute it to its customers. During this period, Ford emerged as "a respected spokesman for right-wing extremism and religious prejudice", reaching around , readers through his newspaper.

In Germany, Ford's antisemitic articles from The Dearborn Independent were issued in four volumes, cumulatively titled The International Jew, the World's Foremost Problem published by Theodor Fritsch , founder of several antisemitic parties and a member of the Reichstag.

In a letter written in , Heinrich Himmler described Ford as "one of our most valuable, important, and witty fighters". Ludecke was introduced to Ford by Siegfried Wagner son of the composer Richard Wagner and his wife Winifred , both Nazi sympathizers and antisemites.

Ludecke asked Ford for a contribution to the Nazi cause, but was apparently refused. While these articles explicitly condemned pogroms and violence against Jews, they blamed the Jews themselves for provoking them.

Juden seien angeblich sowohl für die Korruption in Wirtschaft, Gewerkschaften und im Sport als auch für den Ersten Weltkrieg, die Russische Revolution und den Amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg verantwortlich.

Im Januar wurde die antisemitische Kampagne der Zeitung zunächst ausgesetzt Ford wurden Ambitionen auf eine Präsidentschaftskandidatur nachgesagt, für die er auch jüdische Wählerstimmen benötigt hätte , jedoch erneut aufgenommen.

Die Artikel waren von verschiedenen Autoren geschrieben worden, darunter auch von Fords langjährigem persönlichem Sekretär, Ernest G.

Keiner der Artikel wurde von Ford selbst verfasst, aber da er der Verleger war, lag die Veröffentlichung in seiner Verantwortung.

Das Buch Der internationale Jude wurde im Iran nachgedruckt. Wiederholte öffentliche Appelle, nicht zuletzt von Präsident Woodrow Wilson , seine antisemitische [6] Hetze einzustellen, hatten zunächst keinen Erfolg.

Erst unter dem Druck einer Verleumdungsklage des Juristen und Farmeraktivisten Aaron Sapiro [7] und des Journalisten Herman Bernstein , vertreten durch Samuel Untermyer , entschuldigte er sich für die Hetzschriften des Verlags in einer öffentlichen Erklärung vom Juni Theodor Fritsch weigerte sich jedoch, die rund Ich las es und wurde Antisemit.

Ford produzierte insgesamt Vor dem Einmarsch der deutschen Wehrmacht ins Sudetenland erhielt sie von Ford eine Eillieferung von 1.

Die Ford-Werke wurden bis Ende von der alliierten Bombardierung ganz verschont und danach auch nur wenig beschädigt. Dort wurden auch Zwangsarbeiter aus Konzentrationslagern eingesetzt, die man für vier Reichsmark pro Tag von der SS auslieh.

Ford war der erste Amerikaner, dem diese Auszeichnung zuteilwurde. Juli Mein Leben und Werk bzw. Die zuerst nur lokal ausgelegte Stiftung wuchs beträchtlich und hatte bis ihren Fokus auch national und international erweitert.

Er verstarb infolge einer Hirnblutung am 7. In: Spiegel Online. Februar , abgerufen am Mai Denslow, Harry S. Berlin, Es gibt auch ehrliche Amerikaner, die ganz so denken wie wir.

Manche glauben das bis heute. Memento vom Ontario, Kanada, Andererseits war er sehr reaktionär und im ganzen Land für seinen Antisemitismus bekannt, den er in seiner eigenen Zeitung, dem Dearborn Independent zu predigen pflegte.

Berlin, , S. Stanford UP, Stanford , S. Memento vom 3. Abgerufen am Oktober In the first several years of their marriage, Ford supported himself and his new wife by running a sawmill.

In , he returned with Clara to Detroit, where he was hired as an engineer for the Edison Illuminating Company. Rising quickly through the ranks, he was promoted to chief engineer two years later.

On call 24 hours a day for his job at Edison, Ford spent his irregular hours on his efforts to build a gasoline-powered horseless carriage, or automobile.

Determined to improve upon his prototype, Ford sold the Quadricycle in order to continue building other vehicles. He received backing from various investors over the next seven years, some of whom formed the Detroit Automobile Company later the Henry Ford Company in After his departure, it was reorganized as the Cadillac Motor Car Company.

The following year, Ford established the Ford Motor Company. At the time, only a few cars were assembled per day, and groups of two or three workers built them by hand from parts that were ordered from other companies.

Ford was dedicated to the production of an efficient and reliable automobile that would be affordable for everyone; the result was the Model T , which made its debut in October As a result, he put into practice techniques of mass production that would revolutionize American industry, including the use of large production plants; standardized, interchangeable parts; and the moving assembly line.

Mass production significantly cut down on the time required to produce an automobile, which allowed costs to stay low. Even as production went up, demand for the Tin Lizzie remained high, and by , half of all cars in America were Model Ts.

After a court battle with his stockholders, led by brothers Horace and John Dodge, Henry Ford bought out all minority stockholders by In , Ford moved production to a massive industrial complex he had built along the banks of the River Rouge in Dearborn, Michigan.

The plant included a glass factory, steel mill, assembly line and all other necessary components of automotive production.

That same year, Ford ceased production of the Model T, and introduced the new Model A, which featured better horsepower and brakes, among other improvements.

By that time, the company had produced some 15 million Model Ts, and Ford Motor Company was the largest automotive manufacturer in the world. Ford opened plants and operations throughout the world.

The Model A proved to be a relative disappointment, and was outsold by both Chevrolet made by General Motors and Plymouth made by Chrysler ; it was discontinued in

Ford Henry Video

Henry Ford: Innovator Until He Wasn't Die Sammlung fiktiver Protokolle, die eine Weltverschwörung des "internationalen Judentums" beweisen sollten, ist die wahrscheinlich Ford Henry weitverbreitete Verschwörungstheorie. Eine Partei und ihre Mitglieder. Beste Spielothek in Paulsdorf finden spätere Reichskanzler hatte zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits ein Porträt des Fabrikanten neben seinen Schreibtisch gehängt. Juli im Internet Archive In: Graswurzelrevolution. Er ist jedoch der Erste, der Beste Spielothek in Wildenranna finden konsequent in der Produktion einsetzt. Edsel gelang es auch, gegen die Einwände seines Vaters eine mechanisch betätigte Vierrad-Bremse und ein handgeschaltetes Schieberadgetriebe durchzusetzen. Doch es war nicht der reine Altruismus, der Henry Knedl Und Kraut Cd antrieb. So war Ford Beste Spielothek in Fischbrunn finden ein Wohltäter - aber mit eigenem Überwachungsstaat. Obwohl es sich bei dem Buch demnach um keine Autobiographie im Wortsinn handelt, präsentiert sie Fords Version seiner Lebensgeschichte. In den acht folgenden Jahren verbreitete das Blatt antisemitische Artikel, unter anderem die Protokolle der Weisen von Zioneine Fälschung des zaristischen Geheimdienstes, die sich gegen JudenSozialistenLiberale und Freimaurer richtete. As a young man in Sunnyside, Washington, inRoscoe Sheller rode for the first time in a Model T automobile, which had been introduced seven Ford Henry earlier by Henry Ford. Ein weiterer Grund war, dass es in der Massenproduktion einfacher ist, nur eine Farbe zu verwenden. Casino ParfГјm spent most of his life making headlines, good, bad, but never indifferent. Archived from the original on March 4, He founded his own Tom Ford Bei Dir LГ¤uft Mies label in The book made a Hitman Hammer Time Deutsch influence on myself and my friends because we saw in Casino Hotel Velden Ford the representative of success and also the representative of a progressive social policy.

With the production of the Model T automobile, Henry Ford had an unforeseen and tremendous impact on American life. He became regarded as an apt symbol of the transition from an agricultural to an industrial America.

Ford spent most of his life making headlines, good, bad, but never indifferent. Celebrated as both a technological genius and a folk hero, Ford was the creative force behind an industry of unprecedented size and wealth that in only a few decades permanently changed the economic and social character of the United States.

Once Ford realized the tremendous part he and his Model T automobile had played in bringing about this change, he wanted nothing more than to reverse it, or at least to recapture the rural values of his boyhood.

Henry Ford, then, is an apt symbol of the transition from an agricultural to an industrial America. Henry Ford was one of eight children of William and Mary Ford.

He was born on the family farm near Dearborn , Michigan, then a town eight miles west of Detroit. Abraham Lincoln was president of the 24 states of the Union, and Jefferson Davis was president of the 11 states of the Confederacy.

Ford attended a one-room school for eight years when he was not helping his father with the harvest. At age 16 he walked to Detroit to find work in its machine shops.

After three years, during which he came in contact with the internal-combustion engine for the first time, he returned to the farm, where he worked part-time for the Westinghouse Engine Company and in spare moments tinkered in a little machine shop he set up.

Ford moved back to Detroit nine years later as a married man. They were married in , and on November 6, , she gave birth to their only child, Edsel Bryant.

A month later Ford was made chief engineer at the main Detroit Edison Company plant with responsibility for maintaining electric service in the city 24 hours a day.

He had determined several years before to build a gasoline-powered vehicle, and his first working gasoline engine was completed at the end of Unlike many other automotive inventors, including Charles Edgar and J.

Frank Duryea, Elwood Haynes , Hiram Percy Maxim , and his Detroit acquaintance Charles Brady King, all of whom had built self-powered vehicles before Ford but who held onto their creations, Ford sold his to finance work on a second vehicle, and a third, and so on.

During the next seven years he had various backers, some of whom, in , formed the Detroit Automobile Company later the Henry Ford Company , but all eventually abandoned him in exasperation because they wanted a passenger car to put on the market while Ford insisted always on improving whatever model he was working on, saying that it was not ready yet for customers.

Finally, in , Ford was ready to market an automobile. In , his natural talents earned him a promotion to chief engineer.

All the while, Ford developed his plans for a horseless carriage. In , Ford built his first gasoline-powered buggy, which had a two-cylinder, four-horsepower engine.

In , he constructed his first model car, the Ford Quadricycle. In the same year, he attended a meeting with Edison executives and found himself presenting his automobile plans to Thomas Edison.

The lighting genius encouraged Ford to build a second, better model. By , Ford was awarded with his first patent for a carburetor. In , with money raised from investors following the development of a third model car, Ford left Edison Illuminating Company to pursue his car-making business full-time.

Ford introduced the Model T , the first car to be affordable for most Americans, in October and continued its construction until For several years, Ford Motor Company posted percent gains.

By , Ford and his son Edsel introduced another successful car, the Model A, and the Ford Motor Company grew into an industrial behemoth.

More than for his profits, Ford became renowned for his revolutionary vision: the manufacture of an inexpensive automobile made by skilled workers who earn steady wages and enjoyed a five-day, hour work week.

Ford was an ardent pacifist and opposed World War I , even funding a peace ship to Europe. Later, in , Ford and his family established the Ford Foundation to provide ongoing grants for research, education and development.

In , Ford introduced moving assembly belts into his plants, which enabled an enormous increase in production. Although Ford is often credited with the idea, contemporary sources indicate that the concept and development came from employees Clarence Avery , Peter E.

Martin , Charles E. Sorensen , and C. Harold Wills. Sales passed , in By , half of all cars in the United States were Model Ts.

All new cars were black; as Ford wrote in his autobiography, "Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black.

The design was fervently promoted and defended by Ford, and production continued as late as ; the final total production was 15,, This record stood for the next 45 years.

This record was achieved in 19 years from the introduction of the first Model T Henry retained final decision authority and sometimes reversed the decisions of his son.

Ford started another company, Henry Ford and Son, and made a show of taking himself and his best employees to the new company; the goal was to scare the remaining holdout stockholders of the Ford Motor Company to sell their stakes to him before they lost most of their value.

He was determined to have full control over strategic decisions. The ruse worked, and Ford and Edsel purchased all remaining stock from the other investors, thus giving the family sole ownership of the company.

In , Ford also purchased Lincoln Motor Co. The company went into receivership, and the Lelands agreed to a Ford buyout.

However, they were soon expelled from it. Despite this acquisition of a premium car maker, Henry displayed relatively little enthusiasm for luxury automobiles in contrast to Edsel, who actively sought to expand Ford into the upscale market.

The original Lincoln Model L the Lelands had introduced in was also kept in production untouched for a decade untouched until it became too outdated.

It was replaced by the modernized Model K in By the mids, General Motors was rapidly rising as the leading American automobile manufacturer.

GM president Alfred Sloan established the company's "price ladder" whereby GM would offer an automobile for "every purse and purpose" in contrast to Ford's lack of interest in anything outside the low-end market.

Although Henry Ford was against replacing the Model T, now 16 years old, Chevrolet was mounting a bold new challenge as the make had been established under Sloan's price ladder as GM's entry-level division.

Ford also resisted the increasingly popular idea of payment plans for cars. With Model T sales starting to slide, Ford was forced to relent and approve work on a successor model, shutting down production for 18 months.

During this time, Ford constructed a massive new assembly plant at River Rouge for the new Model A, which launched in By , flagging sales of the Model T finally convinced Ford to make a new model.

He pursued the project with a great deal of interest in the design of the engine, chassis, and other mechanical necessities, while leaving the body design to his son.

Although Ford fancied himself an engineering genius, he had little formal training in mechanical engineering and could not even read a blueprint.

A talented team of engineers performed most of the actual work of designing the Model A and later the flathead V8 with Ford supervising them closely and giving them overall direction.

Edsel also managed to prevail over his father's initial objections in the inclusion of a sliding-shift transmission. Subsequently, the Ford company adopted an annual model change system similar to that recently pioneered by its competitor General Motors and still in use by automakers today.

Not until the s did Ford overcome his objection to finance companies, and the Ford-owned Universal Credit Corporation became a major car-financing operation.

Henry Ford still resisted many technological innovations such as hydraulic brakes and all-metal roofs, which Ford vehicles did not adopt until For however, Ford dropped a bombshell with the flathead Ford V8, the first low-price eight-cylinder engine.

The flathead V8, variants of which were used in Ford vehicles for 20 years, was the result of a secret project launched in and Henry had initially considered a radical X-8 engine before agreeing to a conventional design.

It gave Ford a reputation as a performance make well-suited for hot-rodding. Ford did not believe in accountants; he amassed one of the world's largest fortunes without ever having his company audited under his administration.

Without an accounting department, Ford had no way of knowing exactly how much money was being taken in and spent each month, and the company's bills and invoices were reportedly guessed at by weighing them on a scale.

Also at Edsel's insistence, Ford launched Mercury in as a mid-range make to challenge Dodge and Buick, although Henry also displayed relatively little enthusiasm for it.

Ford was a pioneer of " welfare capitalism ", designed to improve the lot of his workers and especially to reduce the heavy turnover that had many departments hiring men per year to fill slots.

Efficiency meant hiring and keeping the best workers. Detroit was already a high-wage city, but competitors were forced to raise wages or lose their best workers.

He viewed the increased wages as profit-sharing linked with rewarding those who were most productive and of good character.

Real profit-sharing was offered to employees who had worked at the company for six months or more, and, importantly, conducted their lives in a manner of which Ford's "Social Department" approved.

They frowned on heavy drinking, gambling, and what today are called deadbeat dads. The Social Department used 50 investigators and support staff to maintain employee standards; a large percentage of workers were able to qualify for this "profit-sharing.

Ford's incursion into his employees' private lives was highly controversial, and he soon backed off from the most intrusive aspects.

By the time he wrote his memoir, he had spoken of the Social Department and the private conditions for profit-sharing in the past tense. He admitted that:.

Welfare work that consists in prying into employees' private concerns is out of date. Men need counsel and men need help, often special help; and all this ought to be rendered for decency's sake.

But the broad workable plan of investment and participation will do more to solidify industry and strengthen organization than will any social work on the outside.

Without changing the principle we have changed the method of payment. In addition to raising his workers' wages, Ford also introduced a new, reduced workweek in The decision was made in , when Ford and Crowther described it as six 8-hour days, giving a hour week, [30] but in it was announced as five 8-hour days, giving a hour week.

On May 1, , the Ford Motor Company's factory workers switched to a five-day hour workweek, with the company's office workers making the transition the following August.

Ford had decided to boost productivity, as workers were expected to put more effort into their work in exchange for more leisure time, and because he believed decent leisure time was good for business since workers would have more time to purchase and consume more goods.

However, charitable concerns also played a role. Ford explained, "It is high time to rid ourselves of the notion that leisure for workmen is either 'lost time' or a class privilege.

Ford was adamantly against labor unions. He explained his views on unions in Chapter 18 of My Life and Work. Most wanted to restrict productivity as a means to foster employment, but Ford saw this as self-defeating because, in his view, productivity was necessary for economic prosperity to exist.

He believed that productivity gains that obviated certain jobs would nevertheless stimulate the broader economy and grow new jobs elsewhere, whether within the same corporation or in others.

Ford also believed that union leaders had a perverse incentive to foment perpetual socio-economic crises to maintain their power. Meanwhile, he believed that smart managers had an incentive to do right by their workers, because doing so would maximize their profits.

However, Ford did acknowledge that many managers were basically too bad at managing to understand this fact.

But Ford believed that eventually, if good managers such as he could fend off the attacks of misguided people from both left and right i.

Bennett employed various intimidation tactics to quash union organizing. The Dearborn police department and Ford security guards opened fire on workers leading to over sixty injuries and five deaths.

In the late s and early s, Edsel—who was president of the company—thought Ford had to come to a collective bargaining agreement with the unions because the violence, work disruptions, and bitter stalemates could not go on forever.

But Ford, who still had the final veto in the company on a de facto basis even if not an official one, refused to cooperate.

For several years, he kept Bennett in charge of talking to the unions trying to organize the Ford Motor Company. Sorensen's memoir [37] makes clear that Ford's purpose in putting Bennett in charge was to make sure no agreements were ever reached.

Sorensen recounted [38] that a distraught Henry Ford was very close to following through with a threat to break up the company rather than cooperate.

Still, his wife Clara told him she would leave him if he destroyed the family business. In her view, it would not be worth the chaos it would create.

Ford complied with his wife's ultimatum and even agreed with her in retrospect. Overnight, the Ford Motor Company went from the most stubborn holdout among automakers to the one with the most favorable UAW contract terms.

The contract was signed in June Now you're in here and we've given you a union shop and more than you got out of them.

That puts you on our side, doesn't it? We can fight General Motors and Wall Street together, eh? Like other automobile companies, Ford entered the aviation business during World War I , building Liberty engines.

After the war, it returned to auto manufacturing until , when Ford acquired the Stout Metal Airplane Company. Ford's most successful aircraft was the Ford 4AT Trimotor , often called the "Tin Goose" because of its corrugated metal construction.

It used a new alloy called Alclad that combined the corrosion resistance of aluminum with the strength of duralumin. The plane was similar to Fokker 's V.

VII-3m, and some say that Ford's engineers surreptitiously measured the Fokker plane and then copied it. The Trimotor first flew on June 11, , and was the first successful U.

Several variants were also used by the U. The Smithsonian Institution has honored Ford for changing the aviation industry. Ford opposed war, which he viewed as a terrible waste, [40] [41] and supported causes that opposed military intervention.

He and about other prominent peace leaders traveled there. Ford's Episcopalian pastor, Reverend Samuel S.

Marquis, accompanied him on the mission. Marquis headed Ford's Sociology Department from to Ford talked to President Wilson about the mission but had no government support.

His group went to neutral Sweden and the Netherlands to meet with peace activists. A target of much ridicule, Ford left the ship as soon as it reached Sweden.

Ford plants in the United Kingdom produced Fordson tractors to increase the British food supply, as well as trucks and aircraft engines.

When the U. In , with the war on and the League of Nations a growing issue in global politics, President Woodrow Wilson , a Democrat, encouraged Ford to run for a Michigan seat in the U.

Wilson believed that Ford could tip the scales in Congress in favor of Wilson's proposed League. Ford wrote back: "If they want to elect me let them do so, but I won't make a penny's investment.

Ford remained a staunch Wilsonian and supporter of the League. When Wilson made a major speaking tour in the summer of to promote the League, Ford helped fund the attendant publicity.

Ford had opposed the United States entry into World War II [35] [49] and continued to believe that international business could generate the prosperity that would head off wars.

Ford "insisted that war was the product of greedy financiers who sought profit in human destruction"; in , he went so far as to claim that the torpedoing of U.

Like many other businessmen of the Great Depression era, he never liked or entirely trusted the Franklin Roosevelt Administration, and thought Roosevelt was inching the U.

Ford continued to do business with Nazi Germany , including the manufacture of war materiel. Beginning in , with the requisitioning of between and French POWs to work as slave laborers, Ford-Werke contravened Article 31 of the Geneva Convention.

The number of slave laborers grew as the war expanded even though Nazi authorities did not require German companies to use slave laborers.

When Rolls-Royce sought a U. He "lined up behind the war effort" when the U. Before the U. Ford broke ground on Willow Run in the spring of , B component production began in May , and the first complete B came off the line in October At its peak in , the Willow Run plant produced Bs per month, and by Ford was completing each B in eighteen hours, with one rolling off the assembly line every 58 minutes.

When Edsel Ford died of cancer in , aged only 49, Henry Ford nominally resumed control of the company, but a series of strokes in the late s had left him increasingly debilitated, and his mental ability was fading.

Ford was increasingly sidelined, and others made decisions in his name. Ford grew jealous of the publicity Sorensen received and forced Sorensen out in They threatened to sell off their stock, which amounted to three quarters of the company's total shares, if he refused.

Ford was reportedly infuriated, but had no choice but to give in. In the early s, Ford sponsored a weekly newspaper that published strongly antisemitic views.

At the same time, Ford had a reputation as one of the few major corporations actively hiring Black workers. In , Ford's closest aide and private secretary, Ernest G.

Liebold , purchased an obscure weekly newspaper for Ford, The Dearborn Independent. The Independent ran for eight years, from until , with Liebold as editor.

Every Ford franchise nationwide had to carry the paper and distribute it to its customers. During this period, Ford emerged as "a respected spokesman for right-wing extremism and religious prejudice", reaching around , readers through his newspaper.

In Germany, Ford's antisemitic articles from The Dearborn Independent were issued in four volumes, cumulatively titled The International Jew, the World's Foremost Problem published by Theodor Fritsch , founder of several antisemitic parties and a member of the Reichstag.

In a letter written in , Heinrich Himmler described Ford as "one of our most valuable, important, and witty fighters".

Ludecke was introduced to Ford by Siegfried Wagner son of the composer Richard Wagner and his wife Winifred , both Nazi sympathizers and antisemites.

Ludecke asked Ford for a contribution to the Nazi cause, but was apparently refused. While these articles explicitly condemned pogroms and violence against Jews, they blamed the Jews themselves for provoking them.

Friends and business associates have said they warned Ford about the contents of the Independent and that he probably never read the articles he claimed he only read the headlines.

A libel lawsuit was brought by San Francisco lawyer and Jewish farm cooperative organizer Aaron Sapiro in response to the antisemitic remarks, and led Ford to close the Independent in December News reports at the time quoted him as saying he was shocked by the content and unaware of its nature.

During the trial, the editor of Ford's "Own Page", William Cameron, testified that Ford had nothing to do with the editorials even though they were under his byline.

Cameron testified at the libel trial that he never discussed the content of the pages or sent them to Ford for his approval.

Miller, a former Dearborn Independent employee, swore under oath that Ford had told him he intended to expose Sapiro.

That Cameron would have continued to publish such anti-Semitic material without Ford's explicit instructions seemed unthinkable to those who knew both men.

Stanley Ruddiman, a Ford family intimate, remarked that "I don't think Mr. Cameron ever wrote anything for publication without Mr.

Ford's approval. They formed a coalition of Jewish groups for the same purpose and raised constant objections in the Detroit press.

Before leaving his presidency early in , Woodrow Wilson joined other leading Americans in a statement that rebuked Ford and others for their antisemitic campaign.

A boycott against Ford products by Jews and liberal Christians also had an impact, and Ford shut down the paper in , recanting his views in a public letter to Sigmund Livingston , president of the ADL.

Wallace also found that Ford's apology was likely, or at least partly, motivated by a business that was slumping as a result of his antisemitism, repelling potential buyers of Ford cars.

Ford's apology was well received. According to Pool and Pool , [79] Ford's retraction and apology which were written by others were not even truly signed by him rather, his signature was forged by Harry Bennett , and Ford never privately recanted his antisemitic views, stating in "I hope to republish The International Jew again some time.